PCSS, V.5, N3, 2004

Abstracts


F.F. Komarov, A.M. Mironov

Carbon Nanotubes: Present and Future
(Reveiw)


Institute of Applied Physics Problems, Belarussian State University,
220064, 7 Kurchatov St., Minsk, Belarus, E-mail:KomarovF@bsu.by

Current methods for synthesizing and studying carbon nanotubes are reviewed. The correlation between the structural features and electronic, electrical, chemical and mechanical characteristics of carbon nanotubes is discussed. Recently developed methods for growing uniform arrays of aligned nanotubes tailored for specific properties are discussed, which hold promise for the mass production and world-wide application of nanotube devices. Current and potential applications of nanotubes are discussed.
Keywords: carbon nanotubes, structure, characterization, application.


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N.V. Ganina, V.A. Schmugurov, V.I. Fistul

Quantum-Chemical Method Determining of Enthalpy of the Creating Monovacancy in Semiconductors

M.V. Lomonosov Moscow State thin chemical technology Academy;
SGU (Russia, Moldova Dept.)

Dependence between size of components filler, its form and distribution for sizes, concentration, degree of the grafitation, thermal conductivity of components of the filler and thermal conductivity of composite material based on polytetrafluorineetylene and aromatic polyamide are explored. Theoretical analyse of results calculations of thermal conductivity of composite materials with different fillers using Maksvel-Eiken, Odelevsky, Dulnev and Nilsens formulas are made.


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O.M. Bordun, Z.V. Stasjuk, I.Yo. Kukharsky

Photoluminescence of Thin Bi12GeO20 Films

Lviv Ivan Franko National University,
50, Drahomanov Str., Lviv, 79005, Ukraine, E-mail: bordun@wups.lviv.ua

The spectra of photoluminescence and photoexcitation of thin Bi12GeO20 films at 80 K are investigated. The separation of the luminescence spectra into elementary components by Alentsev-Fock method is carried out. The spectra of photoluminescence of thin Bi12GeO20 films consist three elementary bands with maximum at 2.10, 1.78 and 1.42 eV are established. The compared of obtained results with results of investigation luminescent spectra cubic Bi2O3 and Bi4Ge3O12 shoved that the luminescence in Bi12GeO20 and this compounds are caused of radiation processes in structural complex, which consist of bismuth ion in near oxygen encirclement.


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B. Grytsuk, S. Dremlyuzhenko, M. Kovalchuk

Temperature Dependence of Surface Conduction of Cadmium Antimonide

Yu. Fedjkovych Chernivtsi National University
2, Kotsybynsky Str., Chernivtsi, 58012, Ukraine, (0372) 584893, E-mail:microel@chnu.cv.ua, SGDrem@mail.ru

Temperature dependence of surface conduction of CdSb wedge samples is studied. Analyzing heating-cooling measurements cycles the limit of cadmium antimonide temperature stability is determined. It is found that heating of CdSb samples above 350 causes irreversible changes in the surface layer.


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Ya.S. Budzhak, A.A. Druzhinin, I.P. Ostrovskii, S.M. Matvienko

Seebeck ffect in Heavily Doped Si-Ge Whiskers

National University Lvivska polytechnika, Sci.-Research Center Crystal,
1, Kotlyarevsky Str., Lviv, 79013, Ukraine,
Phone: 38 0322 721632, E-mail:druzh@polynet.lviv.ua

In the paper Seebeck coefficient for strained and unstrained Si-Ge whiskers in temperature range 4,2-200 was measured. An analysis of the results obtained accounting screening of potential of impurity atoms by charge carriers is provided.


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V. Solomakha, A. Stepanenko, A. Chornous

Physical Properties Copper Thin Film in Conditions of Chemical Interaction with Gases of a Residual Atmosphere

Sumy State University,
Street. R.-Korsakova, 2. Sumy, 40007, Ukraine, E-mail: info@aph.sumdu.edu.ua


In this work influence on physical properties of processes of chemical interaction of the copper thin films with oxygen are experimentally investigated at annealing samples in vacuum up to temperature a = 1000 . It is shown, that after heat treatment the film represents heterogeneous system solid solution(Cu-O) + Cu2O. The temperature of oxidation of the copper thin films depends on initial thickness a film.


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D.. Freik, V.F. Pasichniak, O.L. Sokolov, B.S. Dzundza

Features of Carrier Scattering in the Epitaxial Structures on the Basis of Lead Chalkogenides

Department of physics and solid chemistry
Precarpathian national university of name of Vasiliy Stefanyk
201, Galitska Str., Ivano-Frankivsk, 76000, Ukraine, E-mail: freik@pu.if.ua

An analysis of dependence of the mobility of carrier scattering on thickness of the epitaxial films -PbTe and n-PbS, and also heterostructures of the -PbTe / n-PbS, deposition from the steam phase by method of hot wall on off the BaF2 substrates (111). Determine contribution of scattering on surface, and also dislocations on line "substrates - films" and heterostructures.


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.V. Kidalov1, G.. Sukach2, .P. Potapenko2, .D. Bayda1

The Properties of Porous Gallium Arsenide

1Berdyansk State Pedagogical University,
2V.E. Lashkarev nstitute of Semiconductor Physics NAS of Ukraine

The porous layers of arsenide gallium are got. On the basis of the experimental measuring of spectrums of photo-luminescence and images of transversal plate and external surface of porous layers it is shown that by a factor, which gives a payment in expansion of spectral bar and, simultaneously, its short-wave change, there are quantum-size effects. Estimation of sizes of quantum lines is lead.


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B.M. Ruvinskii1,2, B.K. Ostafiychuk1, M.A. Ruvinskii1

Attenuation of Hypersound by Electrons in Rectangular Quantum Wire

1Vasyl Stefanyk Precarpathian National University,
57, Shevchenko Str., Ivano-Frankivsk, 76000, Ukraine
2Ivano-Frankivsk National Technical University of Oil and Gas,
15, Carpatska Str., Ivano-Frankivsk, 76000, Ukraine, E-mail:ruvinsky@il.if.ua

The electron mechanism of hypersonic attenuation in a rectangular quantum wire (one of the possible structures of meso- and nanoelectronics) is investigated. The dispesion curves for the confined acoustic phonons in a free-standing GaAs wire with different cross-sectional dimensions have been calculated. The attenuation coefficients of confined hypersonic phonons along wire have been determined with taking into account the quantization of electron spectrum and screening of deformational and piezoelectric electron-phonon interactions. The numerical calculations have been fulfilled for the low-temperature attenuation of hypersound in a rectangular quantum GaAs wire. As shown, the spectral and temperature dependences of attenuation are essentially determined with the quantum-dimensional effects.


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P.O. Kondratenko, Yu.M. Lopatkin

One- nd Two-Quantum Processes n Solid Solutions f Dyes

National Aviation University, Ukraine
Sumy State University, Ukraine

In the paper the experimental and theoretical researches of processes in the solid polymeric solutions of dyes were carried out, as a result it was shown, that irradiation of dyes by the high-energy light quantum causes instability (discoloration) of molecules. At this mechanism the discoloration of the dye molecule essentially depends on nature and environment of its excited states. For example, in the methylene blue molecule (MB) it is possible to reach the level of the p,s*-dissociation state by the immediate (one- or two-quantum) excitation where p,s*-MO is located on the S-C-bond. Furthermore other two mechanisms including the transfer of an electron from the exited in singlet state molecule into the matrix or from the matrix into the exited MB molecule were detected. The similar results were obtained at researching of discoloration of resazurin. In this case the N-O-bond is broken off at dissociation of the molecule. In case of brilliant green two-quantum processes was not revealed, while one-quantum processes run with high efficiency.


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B.K. Kotlyarchuk, D.I. Popovych, A.S. Serednytski

Properties f Gan Thin Layers Obtained by Means of the Pulse Laser Reactive Technique

Pidstryhach Institute for Applied Problems of Mechanics and Mathematics NASU,
3b, Naukova Str, Lviv, 79601, Ukraine,
Tel: +380 (322) 65 19 84, Fax: +380 (322) 63 70 88, E-mail: dept16@iapmm.lviv.ua

Laser technology of synthesis of GaN, GaN:Zn, GaN:Mn, GaN:Cr nitride thin layers was developed. Studied their basic structural, electrophysics and cathodoluminescent parameters. Spectral and kinetic characteristics of vapor-plasma torch in target-substrate region under laser evaporation in nitride ambience were investigated. Character of transfer speed and plasma ionization level from technological parameters (nitrogen pressure in the chamber, distance from target, electromagnetic floors in the area a dartboard-lining) was studied. Regularities of correlation between on the one hand on thermodynamic parameters of condensation process (nitrogen pressure and substrate temperature), energy-time modes laser depositions geometry and on the other hand on structure, electrophysics and cathodoluminescent characteristics of obtained nitride thin layers were established. Basic regularities of pulse laser crystallization and cathodoluminescent brightness alteration and radiation spectrum dependencies on energy density of laser annealing were studied.


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Ya.P. Saliy, R.Ya. Saliy1

Simulation of Adsorption Growth of Epitaxial Cluster

Precarpathian National University named by V. Stefanyk
57, Shevchenko Str., Ivano-Frankivsk, 76025, Ukraine
1Kyiv National University named by Taras Shevchenko,
64, Volodymyrska Str., Kyiv, 0017, Ukraine

In the present paper some effects of epitaxial growth of films clusters are considered. Fractal parameters of braine line of the cluster are calculated. There signed this like is like oh the Kochs curve. This line are signed. The influence of sink distribution upon the space distribution of immobile and mobile atoms and their capture rates have been studied.


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V.V. Solovyov, L.. Chernenko

Solid State Surface Modeling on the Cluster Approximation

Yury Kondratyuk Poltava National University, Physics Department,
24, Pershotravneviy Av., Poltava, 36011, Ukraine,
tel.: (8-0532) 56-99-19, E-mail:rector@pntu.poltava.ua

The new approach to simulation of the solid surface is offered within the framework of the cluster approximation. It, as well methods [1,2,4], grounded on elimination of the edge effects, which arise in a case "excising" of the cluster and is grounded in saturation of the torn off order of the cluster by molecules 2, that saves properties of the transmitting symmetry of the solid surface.


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B.K. Ostafiychuk, I.M. Budzulyak, Y.T. Solovko, I.P. Yaremiy, D.I. Popovich

Laser Irradiation of Implanted Bi-Substituted FGF

Precarpathion University named after V. Stefanyk,
57 Shevchenko Str., Ivano-Frankivsk, 76000, Ukraine
phone: +(03422) 59-60-75, E-mail:jaroslavsol@rambler.ru

The processes of migration and annihilation of radiation defects under action of laser irradiation of nanosecond duration in mono- and double implanted by ions B+ Bi-substituted FGF are explored by the methods of two-crystal diffractometry. Two regions are exposed with the excellent mechanisms defect origin, that indicates in the presence of at least two groups of radiation defects. Energies of migration activating of oxygen vacancies Vo and relaxation of Frenkels type defects Vo-Io are calculated, what are equel 2,1 and 1,6 eV respectively. A difference of double implantation from single one in the mechanisms of defects origin in the eventual region of B+ ions run is experimentally set.


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A.M. Ovrutsky, M.S. Rasshchupkina, A.A. Rozhko and G.A. Ermakova

Monte-Carlo Modeling of Crystallization of Thin Films

Physical faculty, Dniepropetrovsk National University,
Dniepropetrovsk, 49050, Ukraine E-mail:metal@ff.dsu.dp.ua

Three-dimensional kinetic modeling of crystallization of microareas of melt has been carried out in view of interaction of atoms with the substrate, spontaneous formation of crystal clusters with the diamond-type lattice (parameters of silicon) or a simple cubic lattice. For the cubic lattice interaction of atoms with the neighbors from the first second and third coordination spheres was taken into account. Some characteristics of epitaxial films obtained in result of calculations are discussed.
Keywords: thin films, Monte-Carlo modeling, crystal clusters, spontaneous crystallization, epitaxy.


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L.I. Nykyruy, V.M. Klanichka, A.V. Lysak, V.M. Shperun

Thermal-Electricity Properties of Lead Telluride of the n-Type of Conductivity

Physical-Chemical Institute at the Vasyl Stefanyk Prekarpathian University
Shevchenko str., 57, Ivano-Frankivsk, 76000, Ukraine, -mail:liubomyr@pu.if.ua

Concentration dependence of the thermal-e.m.f. a, conductivity s, thermal conductivity k, thermal-electricity power a2s, thermal-electriciry quality Z dimensionless factor of thermal-electriciry quality Z of lead telluride of the n-type of conductivity are research with account of the dominate carrier scattering at the wide concentration (1016-1020cm-3) and temperature range (4,2-300 K).


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V.. Zuev, L.M Gorynya, N.Y. Lavrinenko

The Influence of the Surface on the Exciton Reflectance of b-ZnP2 Crystals

Ukrainian National Defence Academy,
28 Povytroflotsky prospect, Kyiv 03049

Experimental end theoretical investigation of exciton reflectance spectra of b-ZnP2 crystals has been carried out under different surface conditions. The space dispersion effect were observed for C- excitons. The A- exciton surface localization was observed under large band bending of the polished surface.


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U.M. Pysklynets

Atomic Defects on CdTe:Ge Crystals

Vasyl Stefanyk Prearpathian National University,
57, Shevchenko Str., Ivano-Frankivsk, 76000, Ukraine, E-mail:freik@pu.if.ua

On the base of the quasichemical theory the analyses of defect state of the CdTe<Ge> crystal at the annealing on cadmium vapour is lead. It is shown that model of associative centers (GeCdVCd) take good agreement with experiment at the PCd~102P. At the high partial pressures of cadmium vapour it is necessary of account the existence the admixture as precipitate.


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A.M. Yatsura

Defects on PbSe<Pb>:Bi Films

Vasyl Stefanyk Precarpathian National University, phys. and chem. of solid state dept.,
201, Galytska Str., Ivano-Frankivsk, 76000, Ukraine, E-mail:freik@pu.if.ua

The quasichemical equation of defect formation on bismuth alloying bSe films, grown on vacuum at the lead pair satiation is proposed. It is show the dominant defects with formation of interlattice lead (Pbi+) except for atmosphere influence of (BiPb+), (BiSe-) alloys at the addition lead source temperatures a = 400-650 K.


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V.F. Zinchenko1, N.P. Efryushina1, O.G. Eryomin1, V.Ya. Markiv2, I.V. Stoyanova1, V.P Antonovich1, O.V. Mozkova3, N.M. Blyavina2

Structure and Optical Properties of Phases in the System EuF3-CeF3

1Bogatsky Institute on Physical Chemistry NASU,
86, Lyustdorfska Doroga Str., des, 65080, Ukraine; E-mail: vfzinchenko@ukr.net
2Taras Shevchenko Kyiv National University,
64, Volodymyrska Str., Kyiv, 01003, Ukraine; E-mail: belmar@mail.univ.kiev.ua
3"rsenal" Central Design Office,
8, Moscovska Str., Kyiv, 02010, Ukraine, E-mail: borisgor@i.com.ua

Interaction between EuF3-CeF3 at annealing, melting and evaporation in vacuum and a composition of the phases produced, have been studied by the methods of X-ray diffraction analysis and spectroscopy of diffuse reflectance. Formation of new phases based on the complex Eu(II), Ce(IV) fluorides was established. They reveal weakening of absorption bands in the near IR interval due to the 4f-4f electronic transition in the Eu(III) ions and strong increasing of absorption bands in the UV interval of spectrum. Coatings obtained from the materials of the EuF3-CeF3 system have rather high optical and operational characteristics.


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I.F. Mironyuk, M.O. Povazhnyak, V.M. Cheljadyn, V.V. Strelko1

The New Aspects of Thermal Dehydration of Magnesium Hydroxide

Vasyl Stefanyk Precarpathian National University,
57, Shevjhjchenko Str., Ivano-Frankivsk, 76000
1Sorbcion and Endoecology Problem Institute NAS Ukraine,
13 General Naumov Str., Kyiv, 03164, Ukraine

The plate crystals Mg(OH)2 obtained by mixing up of MgCl26H2O with aqueous solution of NaOH take a very original shape in the process of drying-out they roll up into tubes of 5-13 nm in diameter and 100-200 nm length.
In the temperature interval of the basic stage of dehydration of Mg hydroxide (325 -470oC) MgO and the lower oxide Mg4O3 are formating. The crystals of oxides appearing thereby have a lobe shaping. Their size is about 40-90 nm and the thickness about 1.7 nm. While the temperature is increasing they are baking and by the by become one-phase ones. The formation of cubic habitus of MgO ends at 900oC.
Then comes the decreasing of Mg-O connection and the simultaneous increasing of atomic interaction in transition from six-time ion co-odination of Mg (in the OH-group Mg(OH)2 (2.152Å) ) to octaedron ion environment of Mg in MgO6 for magnesium oxide (2.116Å) and, ferther on, to four-time environment of some ions of magnesium in Mg4O3 (2.013Å). It is displayed in infrared spectres thereby comes the increase of frequency of valency oscillations of the indicated connection. The higher frequency of oscillations of surface hydroxil groups in Mg4O3 (3720 cm-1) compared with hydroxil groups MgO (3700 cm-1) points out to more alkaline properties of the lower oxide of Mg.


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D.M. Freik, V.V. Prokopiv, I.M. Khatsevych, V.B. Vanchuk

Equilibrium Constants of Quasi-Chemical Reactions of Own Atomic Defect Formation by Any Charge States on Lead Selenium

Physical_chemical Institute at the Vasyl Stefanyk Prekarpathian National University,
201, Galytska Str., Ivano-Frankivsk, 76000, Ukraine

In paper the value of equilibrium constants of quasi-chemical reactions of own atomic defect formation on lead selenium on the basis of approximation of the experimental data of two-temperature is specified to annealing of crystals by theoretical models in supposition of existence double-charge interlattice atoms and single-charge vacancies in metallic sublattice. On the basis of analysis the general condition both of electro-neutrality dependences of defect concentration and charge carriers are found on a temperature and partial pressure of selenium during realization of two-temperature annealing.


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H. Sirenko, N. Lutsyshin

Influence Nanparticles Get Thick of Plastic Greasing on Interaction with Perchloric Ammonia

Vasyl Stefanyk Prekarpathian National University,
201, Galytska Str., Ivano-Frankivsk, 76000, Ukraine, E-mail:nli@optima.com.ua

The disintegration nanparticles firm perchloric ammonia is investigated, with which with increase of temperature the products of disintegration change. With entering perfluoropolyethers with nanparticles modified aerosils to perchloric ammonia, its disintegration is slowed down, thus working temperature of an oxidizer is increased, the amount of heat of reaction decreases.


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P.P. Gorbik, I.V. Dubrovin, M.N. Filonenko

Chemical Method f Obtaining the Nanocrystalline Texture ZnO Films

Institute of Surface Chemistry, National Academy of Sciences 17, Gen. Naumov Str., Kyiv, 03680, Ukraine, E-mail:mfilonenko@ukr.net

Low temperature without vacuum synthesis of nanocrystal zinc oxide films by pyrolysis of chloride solution aerosols was described. Fusibility curve of system ZnCl2-ZnO in region of low concentration of the oxide and morphology of films obtained were investigation. The solubility of chloride in oxide was determined.


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G.O. Sirenko, V.P. Svidersky1, L.V. Karavanovych

The Dependence of Thermophysical Properties of the Polymeric Materials from Type and Form of the Fillers

Vasyl Stefanyk Precarpathian National University,
57, Shevjhjchenko Str., Ivano-Frankivsk, 76000
1Khmelnytsky National University, 11, Instytutska Str., Khmelnytsky, 29016,Ukraine

Dependence between size of components filler, its form and distribution for sizes, concentration, degree of the grafitation, thermal conductivity of components of the filler and thermal conductivity of composite material based on polytetrafluorineetylene and aromatic polyamide are explored. Theoretical analyse of results calculations of thermal conductivity of composite materials with different fillers using Maxwell-Eiken, Odelevsky, Dulnev and Nilsens formulas are made.


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.. Kostrzhytsky, .V. Lyapina

Feature of Electrode Processes on Cuprum-Tin Condensate Surface and their Analogies on Neutral Spaces

Odessa National Academy of Foot Technology, 112, Kanatna Str., Odessa, 65039, (0482) 29-11-31, E-mail: profAIK@ipss.net

The features of electrolytic potentials are studied, and experimental data about parameters of electrochemical corrosion process at external polarization are obtained. Taphel constants b and b, currents of an exchange and corrosion current are designed. It was shown, that there is an area of structures (38...45 mass % of Sn), having heightened stability. Doping of a main system Cu-Sn with aluminium and nickel renders essential influence on nature of electrode processes in average range of structure; in lesser degree this influence is exhibited on dilute and high-tin alloys. The currents of an exchange jo do not depend on structure of systems and lie in the same limits as corrosion currents.


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A.N. Gulivets, A.S. Baskevich1, V.A. Zabludovsky, .P. Shtapenko, R.P. Ganych

Investigation of the Cathode Supersaturation Influence on the Structure of Electrodeposited Ni-P, Co-P Films

Dniepropetrovsk National University of Railway Transport,
2, Acad. Lazaryana Str., Dniepropetrovsk, 49010, Ukraine
phone: (056) 776-17-05, E-mail: physmet@ff.dsu.dp.ua, shtapenk@a-teleport.com,
1Ukrainian State Chemical-Technology University
(0562) 46-62-51

The influence on the pulsed current regimes on the structure of electrodeposited Ni-P, Co-P films has been studied. Nonequilibrium of crystallization conditions induced by the value and rate of changing of cathode supersaturation has been found to affect the forming of amorphous and microcrystalline states in the films.


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P.I. Loboda

Influence of Microstructure Perfection on Electrical Conductivity of Lanthanum Hexaboride

Mational Technical University KPI,
Kyiv, 37, Peremogy av., build. 9,
phone.: 241-76-17, E-mal: PetrLoboda@yandex.ru

It is shown, that the basic type of defects in La6 crystals grown from stock materials of stoichiometrical composition, are the dislocations, subgrain formed by lot of dislocations, and inclusions of tetraboric phase. By the metallographic analysis is fixed, that practically all crystals obtained from stock material with an excess of boron, have a density of dislocations on 2-3 exponent part smaller, than crystals grown from stock material of stoichiometrical composition. The metering have shown, that with increasing of boron concentrating the electrical resistance increases almost linearly.
The influence of a density volumetric (boundaries of grains), linear (dislocations) and dot (vacancies in a sublattice of La) defects of a constitution of a crystal lattice on magnitude of electrical resistance of lanthanum hexaboride is fixed.


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V. Timofeyev, O. Semenovska, M. Prykhodko

Features of Modeling of Processes of Self-warming-up in the Submicron Heterostructure Transistors

National Technical University of Ukraine Kyiv Polytechnical Institute,
37, Peremogy Av., Kyiv-056, 03056,
E-mail:timof@ntu-kpi.kiev.ua, sem@phbme.ntu-kpi.kiev.ua

The circuit model of heterojunction bipolar transistor including thermal effect is submitted. The analysis of parameters of circuit model of the transistor was carried out. The criterion of a choice of values ballast resistance is determined. Influence of thermal effect on frequency characteristics of the one-cascade microwave amplifier was shown.


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V.I. Mynjko, P.E. Shepelyavyy, P.F. Romanenko, .S. Lytvyn, .Z. Indutnyy

Change of Exposition Characteristics of Chalkogenides Photoresisters at the Conservation

V.E. Lashkarev Institute of Semiconductor Physics NAS of Ukraine,
Kyiv, Ukraine

The investigation results of holographic diffraction gratings recording processes by radiation of helium-neon laser have been represented. Inorganic As40S20Se40 and As40Se60 photoresists treated by the newly developed selective etching solution was chosen as a registering media. Dependencies of exposition characteristics of the chalcogenide resists on time of storage at room temperature was investigated. Angular and spectral dependencies of grating diffractive efficiency absolute values were measured. Shown is that the groove profile of diffraction gratings with the maximal diffraction efficiency values is close to a sinusoid with groove depth about 300 nm. Maximal diffraction efficiency of gratings is ~ 83 % in polarized light and ~ 75 % in non-polarized one. Investigated photoresists are promising for recording of high effective relief-phase optical elements using radiation from a long-wavelength part of visible spectral interval. However, the storage time at room temperature for plates with As40Se60 photoresist does not exceed one month, for As40S20Se40 - almost twice it is more.


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L.Yu. Kozak

Nature of Metals Plasticity

Ivano-Frankivsk National Technical University of Oil and Gas,
15, Karpatska Str., 76000, Ivano-Frankivsk

phone: (03722)42351, E-mail:kozakl@ifdtung.if.ua

In the article new views on a nature of the metals plasticity are stated. On the two-dimensional model of the crystal it was shown that the infinite size crystal lattice with the spherically symmetric potential of interatomic interaction could be unstable under influence of small shear deformation. In such crystal lattice the repulsive forces arise between the atoms and theirs nearest neighbors, which balanced by the attractive forces between atoms and their secondary neighbors. The process of crystal stability breaking under the influence of external forces can be considered as the plasticity. The displacement group of atoms into position of lower potential energy is presented as the elementary stage of plastic deformation.


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