B.K. Ostafiychuk, I.M. Gasyuk, L.S. Kaykan, B.J. Deputat, O.V. Morushko
Mg-doped Li0.5Fe2.5O4-based Spinels. Electrical and Electrochemical Characterization
Precarpathian national university of name of Vasilij Stefanyk 57, Shevchenko Str., Ivano-Frankivsk, 76000, Ukraine
By the method of impedance spectroscopy explored leading and dielectric properties of synthesized by the ceramic method of Mg-substituted for Li-Fe spineless. Measuring of descriptions of іintercalation-bits of the electrochemical system of /катод is conducted on the basis of Li0.5Fe2.5-x MgxO4/ electrolyte /metallically lithium/. Connection is shown between the intercalation -conditioned descriptions and correlation between electronic and ion the components of conductivity.
E.F. Venger, I.M. Matiyuk, L.O. Matveeva, M.Yu. Kravetzkyi, I.O. Masarchuk
Influence of the Mechanical and Chemical Treatment on the Optical Properties of the Monocrystal ZnAs2 Surface Layer
Institute of the Semiconductor Physics by Lashkarev NAS Ukraine, pr. Nauky, 45, Kyiv, 03028, Ukraine, phone 80445258317, e-mail email@example.com
Electroreflectance study was shown that the quality of the surface region of the ZnAs2 monocrystal is determined by the treatment condition. The mechanical stress appears after different surface treatment. It was shown that inversion layers by n-type conductivity is emerged in the monocrystal of the p-type conductivity after mechanical surface lapping and mechanical polishing. Donor type of the defects that appear at plastic deformation during abrasive surface treatment could be the source of the inversion. The dotty defects (like vacancy) in the surface monocrystalline region emerge in case of the surface reaction with solution at chemical cutting. These dotty defects don’t invert the conductivity type of the surface layer of the monocrystal.
Ya.S. Budzhak, A.A. Druzhinin, I.P. Ostrovskii, S.M. Matvienko
Charge Carrier Transfer in Doped Si-Ge Solid Solution Whiskers
National university “Lvivska polytechnika”, Sci.-Research Center “Crystal”, Kotlyarevsky street 1, Lviv, Ukraine, 79013, e-mail:firstname.lastname@example.org
In the paper Seebeck coefficient of Si1-xGex (x = 0(01 - 0(05) whiskers in magnetic fields with intensity 0 – 14 T in temperature range 4,2 – 200 К was investigated. An analysis of the results obtained accounting screening of potential of impurity atoms by charge carriers as well as their scattering on acoustic phonons is provided.
O.M. Bordun, I.Yo. Kukharsky, V.V. Dmitruk, Yu.B. Kotsan
Luminescence of Ceramics Pb2Bi6O12
Lviv Ivan Franko National University 50 Dragomanov Str., Lviv, 79005, Ukraine, E-mail:email@example.com
The spectra of luminescence and photoexcitation of ceramic Pb2Bi6O11 at 80 K are investigated. The separation of the luminescence spectra into elementary components by Alentsev-Fock method is carried out. The spectra of luminescence of Pb2Bi6O11 ceramics consist three elementary bands with maximum at 2.60, 2.32 and 1.93 eV are established. The compared of obtained results with results of investigation luminescent spectra in bismuth compound oxide systems shoved that the luminescence in Pb2Bi6O11 are caused of radiation processes in structural complex, which consist of bismuth ion in near oxygen encirclement.
V.A. Zuev, L.M. Gorynya, N.U. Lavrinenko, V.S. Manjara
The Effect of Electron Irradiation on the Photoluminescence and the Absorption Edge of CdP2
Ukrainian National Defence Academy, 28 Povytroflotsky prospect, Kyiv 03045, Ukraine
The effect of electron irradiation (1 MeV) on the CdP2 crystal photoluminescence and the absorption edge has been studied. It has been found the showing of temperature phase transition and crystal radiation ordering.
R.Ya. Stetsiv1, I.M. Krip2, T.V. Shymchuk2, V.O. Krasnov1
Adsorption of Cesium and Strontium on Aluminosilicate Nanostructures Surfaces and in Silicate Pores
1 Institute for Condensed Matter Physics of NAS of Ukraine, Svientsitskii Str., UA 79011 Lviv, Ukraine ,tel. 761054, E-mail:firstname.lastname@example.org
2 State University “Lvivska Politekhnika”,12 Bandera Str., UA 79013 Lviv, Ukraine, tel.582286
Using quantum-chemical calculations (ab-initio method) process of adsorption of caesium, strontium on aluminosilicate surfaces was investigated. It is optimized a structure of a system an adsorbate – adsorbent, places of localization of radionuclides set and detail information about charge and distance distribution between atoms obtained. There is a potential barrier for adsorption Cs+, Sr2+ inside silicate pores, and in the case of strontium potential barrier is smaller than for caesium.
M.A. Ruvinsky1, B.M. Ruvinsky2
Effect of Electric Field on Hypersonic Attenuation and Amplification in Rectangular Quantum Wire
1’Vasyl Stefanyk' Precarpathian National University, 57 Shevchenko Str., Ivano-Frankivsk, 76000, Ukraine
2Ivano-Frankivsk National Technical University of Oil and Gas, 15, Carpatska Str., Ivano-Frankivsk, 76000, Ukraine, email@example.com
The effect of electric field on hypersonic propagation in a rectangular quantum wire is investigated. The attenuation of hypersound has been calculated and the possibility of hypersonic amplification along the axis of wire has been elucidated owing to the applied electric field in this direction or the formed temperature gradient when the drift velocity of electrons has exceeded the phase velocity of sound. The numerical results have been presented for the GaAs wire with the cross-sectional dimensions: 28.3Å×56.6Å, 50Å×150Å and 100Å×200Å. The acoustic properties of a rectangular quantum wire may be interesting for acoustoelectronics as the effective low-temperature sound-transmission and amplifier.
M.A. Lopjanko, R.I. Nykyruy, I.V. Kalytchuk
The Gas-dynamical Steam of Stream Parameters of the Cadmium Telluride
Physical-Chemical Institute at the Vasyl Stefanyk Precarpathian National University, 57, Shevchenko Str., Ivano-Frankivsk, 76000, Ukraine, E-mail:firstname.lastname@example.org
There are shown dependence of the thermal-dynamical parameters of the gas-dynamical steam of stream at the linear temperature gradient along cylinder channel of chamber. The dependence of the Makh number, efficient, and the result velocity of condensation, density of the steam of stream, steam pressure, temperature, expend actions, range of satiety of the cadmium telluride from the geometrical factors are calculated. Was receiving the interval of vacuum chamber size to the best structure receive.
I.P. Buryk, D.V. Velykodnyi, L.V. Odnodvorets, I.Yu. Protsenko, N.I. Shumakova
The Some Especially of Strain-Resistance Effect on Metal Wires at the Plastic Deformation
Sumy State University, R.-Korsakova street, 2,.Sumy, 40007, Ukraine
The strain-resistance effect on thin wires Cu, Ni і Mo at plastic deformation was investigated. On base of experimental data was calculated of longitudinally gauge factor, deformation coefficient of the mean free path (λ0) and Poisson's coefficient (µ) on dependence of deformation. Question about value and sign of deformation coefficients λ0 and electrons concentration was analysed. Conclusion what value µ at the plastic deformation not equal 0,5 have been draw.
D.M. Freik1, B.S. Dzundza1, G.D. Mateik2, Yu.V. Klanichka1
Charge Carrier Transport in Low-Disperse Cadmium and Lead Tellurides Films
1’Vasyl Stefanyk’ Precarpathian National University, 57, Shevchenko Str., Ivano-Frankivsk, 76000, Ukraine, E-mail:email@example.com
2 Ivano-Frankivsk National University of Oil and Gas 15, Karpatska Str., Ivano-Frankivsk, 76000, Ukraine
The dependence of the conductivity and charge carrier mobility due temperature at the p-CaTe i р-PbTe polycrystalline thin films, deposited on glasses substrates. The charge carrier transport at the inter-grain boundary that shown by thermal-electronic emission are receive.
O.G. Mikolajchuk1, G.S. Bajtzar1, B.P. Yatsyshyn2
The Electroconductivity Changes of Thin Films During Age Hardening
1 ’Ivan Franko’ L’viv National Unaversity
2 L’viv Commercial Academy, Е-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
The changes of structure and temperature dependence of electroconductivity thin films of threefold connections (Y, Sc) - (Ni, Fe, Co, Hf) - Ge c by the contents of metal no more than 50 vol.%, which were received by annealing from amorphous faze, are investigated. It is shown, that thermodynamic conditions during reception of thin films are a major factor determining stability of structure and properties of condensates.
Ya.P. Saliy, І.М. Freik, I.Yo. Perkatyuk
Distribution of Energy Loss of a-partical in AIVBVI
Precarpathian National University 57, Shevchenko Str., Ivano-Frankivsk 76000, Ukraine
The spatial distribution of ionisation and nuclear energy loss of fast a-partical in semiconductor AIVBVI are calculated.
Т.D. Bakuma, М.P. Mazur
Results of Research of Magnetic Properties and Microstructure of Nickel Ferrite with the Dosed Additions of Aluminium
Ivano-Frankivsk National Technical University of Oil and Gas
The results of research of basic parameters of the nickel-aluminum system of ferrites are presented such as: Curie temperature, coercitive force, specific magnetization of saturation, microstructure, porosity, specific electric resistance, depending on composition, tangent of dielectric losses. The results of research of microstructure of standards are presented. Some| explanations are given from the point of view of placing of ions in sublittice of basic matrix. This enables to choose the optimum concentration parameters of nickel-aluminum matrix for further research. It can be recommend for implementation into production.
O.I. Bodak3, V.A. Romaka1,2, Yu.K. Gorelenko3, Yu.V. Stadnyk3, V.F. Chekurin1, L.P. Romaka3, D. Fruchart4, A.M. Horyn3
Conductivity Mechanisms in Heavy-Doped n-ZrNiSn Intermetallic Semiconductors. Experiments
1National University “Lvivska Politechnika”, Bandera Str. 12, 79013 Lviv, Ukraine, Е-mail: email@example.com;
2Ya. Pidstryhach Institute of Applied Problems of Mechanics and Mathematics National Academy of Scieces of Ukraine, 3-b Naukova Str., 79060 Lviv,
3Ivan Franko Lviv National University, Kyryl аnd Mephodiy Str. 6, 79005 Lviv; Ukraine
4В.А. Fock Institute of Physics, St. Petersburg State University, Ulyanovskaya 1, Petrodvorets, 198504, St.-Petersburg, Russia; E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org.
5Laboratoire de Cristallographie, CNRS, BP 166, 38042 Grenoble Cedex 9, France.
It was established a substantial Fermi level displacement and changes in majority and minority change carriers concentration for heavy-doped n-ZrNiSn intermetallic semiconductors. These alternations take place for the materials with identical acceptor impurities concentrations depending on fast or slow cooling (quenching or tempering) the polycrystalline samples after homogenizing heat treatment. The scheme of the donor and acceptor impurity bands reconstruction in n-ZrNiSn compound doped by acceptor impurities was proposed.
S.A. Nedilko, J.A. Galagan, E.G. Zen’kovich, A.G. Dzyazko
The Composite Materials Based up on YBa2Cu3O7-d
Department of Chemistry National Taras Shevchenko University of Kiev, 64 Volodymyrs'ka St., Kiev, 01033, E-mail:email@example.com
Composite materials with suitable properties based on high temperature superconductor (HTSC) ceramics (YBa2Cu3O7-δ with impurities of 5 mass % aluminum, zirconium, niobium and tantalum oxides) have been obtained. Parameters of crystal lattice have been calculated for all the composite systems. Effect of the composite impurities on a temperature of superconductivity state transition and oxygen stoichiometry in the yttrium ceramics were investigated.
N.V. Ganina, V.А. Shmugurov, V.І. Fistul’
Quantum-Chemical Definition of the Enthalpy Formation Monovacancies in Semiconducting Compounds АIIIBV
‘M.V. Lomonosov’ Moscow State Academy of Thin Engineering Chemistry
The method of the molecular orbitals calculates values enthalpies and entropies of formation monovacancies and enthalpies formations of conjugate imperfections-defects of Schottky in semiconducting compounds АIIIBV with structure blende. In calculations the strain space lattice around of an imperfection is considered.
N.V. Ganina, V.А. Shmugurov, V.І. Fistul’
Enthalpy Formation of an Antistructural Defect in Compounds АIIIBV
‘M.V. Lomonosov’ Moscow State Academy of Thin Engineering Chemistry
The settlement estimate of an enthalpy formation of an antistructural defect (АSD) in linkings AIIIBV, grounded on a method of the molecular orbitals, applied by us earlier in [1,2] for evaluation of an enthalpy formation of monovacancies in crystals AIV and AIIIBV is lead.
H.O. Sirenko, О.І. Fedoryshyn, L.Ya. Midak
The Influence of the Temperature Treat on the Gas Distinguished from the Carbon Fibers in the High Vacuum
Vasyl Stefanyk’ Precarpathian National University, 57, Shevchenko Str., Ivano-Frankivsk, 76000, Ukraine
The research by mass-spectrum analysis of the influence of the last temperature treat and temperature of the investigation on the gas distinguished from the carbon fibers by the hydrocellulose. The analysis change balance of CO/CO2 from the temperature of the investigation. It is shown the results of the pH-analysis and thermo graphical analysis of the carbon fibers.
D.M. Freik1, I.M. Ivanyshyn2
Physical and Chemical Properties and Dominating Defects in Crystals of Systems Sn-Sb-Te, Sn-Bi-Te
1’Vasyl Stefanyk’ Precarpathian National University, 57, Shevchenko Str., Ivano-Frankivsk, 76000, Ukraine, E-mail:firstname.lastname@example.org
2Ivano-Frankivsk State Medical Institute, Galitska Str., Ivano-Frankivsk, 76000, Ukraine, E-mail:Ivan_Ira@rambler.ru
The crystal chemistry defect formation mechanism at the doping by elements of V Groupe Sb and Bi of Periodic Table nonstoichiometric Tin Telluride is considered. The dependencies of physics-chemical properties of p-SnTe-Sb(Bi) versus the composition is investigated and correlation between them it is established.
V.I. Pokhmurskii, S.A. Korniy, V.I. Kopylets
Interaction of Components of Chloride-Containing Aqueous Media with CuAl2 Intermetallic Surface: Quantum-Chemical Cluster Approach
Karpenko Physico-Mechanical Institute of the NAS of Ukraine, Lviv, 79601, Naukova str, 5 Tel. (0322) 63-15-77
A semiempirical quantum-chemical PM3 cluster approximation has been used to simulate surfaces of intermetallic phase CuAl2 as a constituent part of aluminium copper alloy’s AA2XXX. Geometric and electronic structure of clusters with the surfaces (100) and (110) of the intermettalic phase were calculated. Parameters of adsorbate compound (water molecules and chlorine ions) interaction with the surfaces of the metals were calculated. It has been showed that water molecules are adsorbed on the intermetallic surface by oxygen atoms in atop sites of the clusters. The influence of chlorine corrosive active ions on the intermetallic surface has been studied in the environment of water molecules. To study the adsorption of Cl- from water solution a molecular model of concurrent adsorption was used. It gave the possibility of the prevailing dissolution of the (110) surface as compared with that of the (100) surface. On the basis of the results we showed that the intermettalic phase is a complicated electrochemical system with the regions of different crystallographic orientation and adsorption sites for the system aluminium-copper, which serve as local cathode-anode regions. The presence of such regions causes the destruction of the intermetallic phase.
D.М. Freik, О.V. Тkachyk, L.Yo. Мezhylovska
The Crystal Chemistry of Bismuth Admixture at Lead Telluride
’Vasyl Stefanyk’ Precarpathian National University, 57, Shevchenko Str., Ivano-Frankivsk, 76000, Ukraine, E-mail:email@example.com
It is proposed the crystal-quasi-chemical equation for non-stoichiometry led telluride crystals (p-PbTe and n-PbTe), that doped by bismuth. The dependence of Hall concentration of charge carriers in doping crystals , reached by tellurium is investigated. It is shown, that bismuth in cationic vacancy to lead to the decrease of hall concentration, and n-type transition of material.
L.T. Strutynska, V.Ya. Mykhailovsky
Peculiarities of the Mechanism of Heterogeneous Catalytic Oxidation of Gas-like Hydrocarbons under Conditions of Opposite Reagents Delivery
Institute of Thermoelectricity of NAS Ukraine and Ministry of Education and Science of Ukraine General P.O. Box 86, 58002, Chernivtsi, Ukraine, tel. (03722 ) 44422, E-mail:firstname.lastname@example.org
The mechanism of heterogeneous oxidation of gas-like hydrocarbons under conditions of opposite reagents delivery is investigated. Different oxidation mechanisms are shown to be realized in catalyst layer. The main factors of mechanism change include temperature distribution, reagent concentration and absorption conditions on catalyst surface. The contribution of oxide catalyst volume to general mechanism of heterogeneous oxidation of gas-like hydrocarbons is elucidated.
L.R. Pavlyuk, M.О. Galuschak
Quasichemistry of Defects on Lead Tellurides, Doped by Indium
Ivano-Frankivsk National University of the oil and gas, 15, Karpatska Str., Ivano-Frankivsk, 76000, Ukraine
On the basis of quasichemical the approach mechanisms of process a doped by indium of crystals and films PbTe, riched a tellurium are analysed. It is erected the basic legitimacies of processes that happen at a doping of lead telluride crystals and at cultivation doped epitaxial lead telluride films. Equilibrium constants quasichemical responses and an enthalpy of natural and impurity defects are obtain.
O. Kurta1, V. Lutsiv2, G. Taras3, S. Kurta2
Synthesis of Superfine Silica in Laboratory Conditions
1National university «Lvivska Polytechnika», 8, Bandery Str., 79000 Lviv
2Precarpathian national university named after V. Stefanyk, 57, Shevchenko str., 76025 Ivano-Frankivsk
3Public enterprise “Kalush experimental plant of ISC of National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine” Promyslova Str., 77311 Kalush-11
In work submitted results of research of modeling of process of synthesis silica on the laboratory bench installation made of a quartz glass and comparison of properties obtained silica with same, but received commercially. Conclusions and recommendations on improvement of the tested laboratory installation are made.
The Oxide Cathode of Welding Arc
Ye.O. Paton Institute of the Electric Welding of National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, 11, Bozhenko Str., Kyiv-150, 03680, Ukraine, E-mail:email@example.com
Development idea of an oxide-coated cathode from a vacuum valve up to an electrical arc is viewed. Oxide cathodes of a welding arc have considerably dilated its technological abilities. On the basis of oxide cathodes burners which generate a controllabled heat flux for robots in oxide gases are created special and have allowed to weld on air various carbon materials with metals.
Field Ageing of Composite Traction Insulators
Technical University of Szczecin, Institute of Electrical Engineering 37, Sikorskiego Str., 70-313 Szczecin, Poland E-mail:firstname.lastname@example.org
This paper presents composite insulator’s field ageing stations set up in coastal climate. Insulators mounted there are exposed to natural ageing factors, such as UV radiation, salt fogs and mists. They are also powered with voltage giving high electrical stress on surface of insulators. Periodically leakage currents are measured. Type of insulator chosen for this research allows to achieve intensive and uniform ageing of the housing material. This material is based on the new type of hardener for epoxy resins, produced in chemical degradation of PET.
S.P. Novosyadlyy, R.I. Zapukhlyak
Schematic Structures and Technological Features of Forming of Submicron Structures of One-chip Microcontrollers with Polysilicon Gate
‘Vasyl Stefanyk’ Prekarpathian University 201, Galytska Str., Ivano-Frankivsk, 76000, Ukraine,
In article schematic, design and technological decisions of microcontroller computers on the base of the field transistors with modifications are analysed. In the field transistors floating gates in which is taken into account the phenomena of second transition in a submicron range are used.
P.I. Melnyk1, I.I. Dmytriv2, I.Ya. Petryk1
Diffusive Chrome-Plating of Plasmasprayed Iron Powder
1‘Vasyl Stefanyk’ Precarpathian National University, Shevchenko, 57 St. Ivano-Frankivsk, 76025, Ukraine
2 Ivano-Frankivsk Institute of Low, Economy and Building, Konoval’tsya, 35 St. Ivano-Frankivsk, 76000, Ukraine
The process of forming of strengthening layer on steel by chrome diffusive saturation of plasmasprayed iron layer is investigated. It is showed that the chrome-plating of evaporation of high-carbon powder of iron forms a carbide layer on its surface.
P.M. Soprunjuk, V.M. Juzevych, A.Y. Lutsyk, P.V. Lugovyj
Character of Temperature Changes of Physical Characteristics of Powder Materials Surface Layers
Physicomechanical institute of NAS of Ukraine Lviv, Street Naukova 5, 79601, e-mail:email@example.com
With application of macroscopical methods of physics of a surface character of temperature changes of physical characteristics of superficial layers of some metals and semiconductors (Ni, Al, Cu, Ag, Fe, Au, Zn, Si, Ge) from which powder materials are formed iis investigated. It is established, that in a range of temperatures [300; 600 K] parameters k, b, ( have increased accordingly for 3,4 %, 4,2 %, 2,3 % and such changes analogicall for the metalls and semiconductors. With application of macroscopical methods of physics of a surface character of temperature changes of physical characteristics of superficial layers of some metals and semiconductors (Ni, Al, Cu, Ag, Fe, Au, Zn, Si, Ge) is investigated. It is established, that in a range of temperatures [300; 600 K] parameters (k, b, x) have increased accordingly for 3,4 %, 4,2 %, 2,3 % and such changes analogicall for the metalls and semiconductors.
G.O. Sirenko1, L.V. Bazyuk1, V.P. Svidersky2
Тhe Contact of the Thermophysical and Antifriction Properties of Composite Polymeric Materials from Concentration of Filler with Many Components
1 ‘Vasyl Stefanyk’ Precarpathian National University, 57, Shevchenko Str., Ivano-Frankivsk, 76000, Ukraine
2 Hmelnytsky National University, 11, Instytutska Str., Khmelnytsky, 29016, Ukraine
The influence of concentration of carbon fiber, graphite and basalt fiber on thermal conductivity and wear of composite material based on aromatic polyamide is researched using methods of mathematics planning of experiment and search of optimal decisions.
O.O. Sapyanenko, P.P. Gorbyk
Influence of Silica Surface Nature on Physico-mechanical Properties of Polyethylene-based Composites
Institute of surface chemistry, NAS of Ukraine 17, General Naumov Str., Kyiv, Ukraine, 03164, E-mail:firstname.lastname@example.org
It is shown that microhardness in material surface layer with presence of silica modified as hydroxylated as with octylated surface groups, in composites based on ultra – high – molecular – weight – polyethylene (UHMWPE), increase. There is non – linear concentration dependence of microhardness. The microhardness is strongly increasing at low filler content from 0 to 1 % wt., and at middle and high concentrations, one slowly increasing also. At middle content, from 1 to 1.5 % wt., in composites filled with octylated silica, the dependence goes through the maximum and falling down in region of high concentrations. The composites, filled with octylated silica, have higher specific density and thermal stability, as compared to analogical with hydroxylated silica ones. There are differences in physico – mechanical properties of composites given, explained by accounting for boundary layer structure.
Electrodynamics of the Film Environments
National University “Lviv Politechnik”, Lviv, Ukraine
There are double coats of electrical and magnetic charges in the above surface layers of the thin films. These coats have an influence on the processes in the flow of current in the films. To consider the impact of these coats of charge on the electromagnetic processes we should include the densities of distributed volume electrical and magnetic charges in the equations of electrodynamics of the film environments. In the limited terms surface densities of electrical and magnetic charges are present.
A.P. Olijnyk, Kh.V. Martynyuk, I.M. Gural
The Surface Points Displacements Measuring Accuracy Influence Estimation on the Pipeline’s Stress-Strained State Mathematical Modeling Results
Ivano-Frankivsk National Technical University of Oil and Gas, 15, Karpatska Str., Ivano-Frankivsk, 76019, Ukraine
The method of input data measuring accuracy influence estimation on the result of pipeline’s part stress-stained state modeling is given, the calculation of the stresses for the well-known problem about the concentrated force loaded beam stressed state is made, the comparison of the results for the input data without smoothing and using one’s is presented, the good agreement of the results was showed. The conclusions concerning the modeling results are stated, the possible directions of the future investigations are defined.
Ye.V. Kolesnyk, O.B. Girin
Three-Dimensional Defects Formation in Electrochemical Tin Coatings on Canned Food Steel Sheet
Ukrainian State University of Chemical Engineering, pr. Gagarina, 8, Dnipropetrovsk, 49005, Ukraine, tel: (0562) 682166, E-mail:email@example.com
Qualitative and quantitative analyses of three-dimensional defects in electrochemical 0,1-1 (m thick tin coatings deposited on canned food steel sheet were done by metallographic method. It is shown, that one of the major causes of three-dimensional defects formation in electrochemical tin coatings on canned food steel sheet is adsorption of molecular hydrogen bubbles on its surface.
V.A. Nastasenko, E.V. Nastasenko
Discovery of Utmost Possible in Material World the Rapidity of the Operation and Expanding the Volume of Computers
Kherson National Technical Universe Post-box 141, 73003, Kherson, Ukraine, tel.. (0552) 51-87-12, (05539) 2-42-17 E-mail:Nastasenko2004@front.ru
The dynamics of the development of rapidity and expanding the volume of computers memory is considered in the paper. In is shown that these possibilities can be theoretically limited only by the sizes of the works layers forming of computers memory in achieving frequencies, wave lengths and other variables of quantum level. The quantitative evaluation of these possibilities is substantiated.
Untraditional Sources Energy (Wind Engines)
Institute of management and economy “Galitsca academiya”, Ivano-Frankivsk
In the given article the process of becoming and development of wind engines, and possibility of their use is considered for the necessities of agriculture and world industry.